The OKEx Drama Exposes a Weak point in Crypto Market Infrastructure – CoinDesk


This week noticed extra change drama rock the crypto markets. 

OKEx, one of many trade’s largest crypto-fiat exchanges, suspended all cryptocurrency withdrawals, saying one of many change’s key holders has “been out of contact” with the change as a result of they’re “presently cooperating with a public safety bureau in investigations.” 

Coming laborious on the heels of the BitMEX indictments from a few weeks in the past, this absolutely will focus the market’s consideration on the safety of the withdrawal protocols of huge exchanges.

On the time, considerations surfaced that withdrawals is perhaps halted from BitMEX, one of many largest derivatives exchanges within the trade. The withdrawal protocol wanted a sure variety of licensed signatures, and one of many licensed signatories had been arrested. The considerations turned out to be unfounded, withdrawals continued with no hitch, however the risk, mixed now with OKEx’s actuality, highlights how distinctive crypto asset market infrastructure is. 

Conventional market-infrastructure companies are usually not exempt from regulatory danger. However in conventional markets, prospects don’t deposit their funds straight on exchanges; they achieve this through brokers. Even when a dealer had been to go bankrupt, as an illustration, segregation of funds means the dealer’s financial institution might return funds to purchasers. 

Crypto markets don’t work that manner. Brokers are usually not but a function, and buyer funds are normally held by the change platform. With regards to crypto holdings, there isn’t even a financial institution that may take over on the behest of the authorities to return funds.

This additionally highlights the irony that an trade born with a decentralized ethos is dominated by centralized companies, with centralized vulnerabilities. Whereas exchanges typically have multi-sig protocols in place (which allowed BitMEX’s withdrawals to proceed even when one signatory was unavailable), it seems that not all do. 

And whereas conventional markets have members working in evenly regulated jurisdictions, these companies don’t dominate their market phase, as they do in crypto.

One other difficulty it raises is that of jurisdiction. OKEx is predicated in Malta, which is a part of the European Union, however headquartered in Hong Kong, with places of work in Singapore and San Francisco. After CoinDesk’s preliminary report got here out, Chinese language media reported that the founder Star Xu had been launched from police custody in Shanghai. The precise prices are nonetheless unclear, and the corporate has stated in an emailed assertion that they’re nothing to do with OKEx. Rumors (not but corroborated) have surfaced that it’s to do with cash laundering – had been they to be true, which jurisdiction ought to press prices, and to what extent ought to Malta be concerned?

Chinese language media additionally reported that the detention of Xu was the results of an investor dispute over compelled liquidations, a methods crash and OKEx’s dealing with of the state of affairs. The corporate has claimed it isn’t conscious of such an issue. 

What’s extra, the company construction of OKEx is frustratingly complicated – Xu can be the founding father of OKCoin which is predicated in China, in addition to the CEO of OK Group, and, in line with his LinkedIn profile, he’s primarily based in San Francisco. Some stories say Xu was not detained by the police, that he had requested for his or her safety. Others say he was detained two weeks in the past, and has not been since. OKEx maintains that Xu not represents the agency, which was spun out from OK Group earlier this yr. This then leaves unexplained the suspension of withdrawals.

By the point you learn this, extra information will in all probability have emerged to make clear the authorized state of affairs and the withdrawal schedule. Or maybe we’ll be much more confused. In the meantime, the firm insists buyer funds are protected.

This case highlights each the relative immaturity of crypto markets in addition to how far they’ve come. It reminds us that the markets are nonetheless immature, in that on many systemic platforms there are nonetheless comparatively few buyer protections in place. The market remains to be largely retail, which has fueled the expansion of platforms that don’t meet the rigorous compliance and accountability necessities of institutional traders. 

But this additionally reminds us of how far crypto markets have come by way of resilience and flexibility. The bitcoin (BTC) worth initially fell simply over 2% on the information, lower than the virtually 4% drop on the again of the BitMEX indictment information on Oct. 1. As I kind, it exhibits indicators of holding regular within the $11,300-$11,350 vary.

Supply: CoinDesk

Wanting ahead, developments like this may speed up a pattern that has already began: the rising curiosity on the a part of centralized exchanges (not simply within the crypto trade) in decentralized functions. Earlier this week, at our Make investments: Ethereum occasion, Binance founder CZ repeated that he sees decentralized finance, or DeFi, as a complement reasonably than a competitor to the extra conventional construction.

Certainly, the worth of $UNI, the token of the decentralized liquidity supplier Uniswap initially fell on the shock of the information however then rebounded nearly 15% as traders began considering by way of the potential influence.

Supply: CoinGecko

In the meantime, tokens issued by extra centralized crypto exchanges akin to Binance (BNB) and FTX (FTT) fell by 5% and three% respectively, and at time of writing have but to rebound.

It’s not typically you get to observe market infrastructure dynamics shift earlier than your very eyes. However, as we are saying in our trade, a yr in crypto is like 10 years in conventional finance.

The crypto market is broader and extra fascinating than most understand

We had our first Ethereum-focused occasion this week, which introduced collectively traders, analysts and builders from all corners of the trade to debate the second-largest crypto ecosystem by market cap, and its upcoming know-how change.

I hosted a panel of crypto market-infrastructure leaders to speak concerning the monetary off-chain elements of Ethereum – its markets, traded merchandise, traders and outlook. We didn’t have time to enter all that I’d have preferred, however listed below are among the key takeaways:

Ethererum is changing into an on-ramp

Bitcoin (BTC) remains to be the primary crypto asset on-ramp for traders, as it’s the most liquid and has the best variety of venues and buying and selling alternatives. But in line with Michael Sonnenshein, managing director of Grayscale Investments, a rising variety of conventional traders are attracted by the potential of decentralized finance and Ethereum’s worth proposition as a platform for modern market functions. ETH is changing into an on-ramp. 

The expansion in ETH traders might be seen within the variety of addresses with a non-zero steadiness, which is up nearly 40% because the starting of the yr. 

Supply: Glassnode

Volatility is a function not a bug

Many traders cite volatility as a barrier to crypto asset funding. Some regulators use it as an excuse to restrict entry for retail traders who might face surprising danger. Certainly, crypto belongings are extra unstable than most conventional belongings – however that’s extra a function than a bug. 

Each Sonnenshein and Thomas Chippas, CEO of crypto asset platform ErisX, identified that their shopper bases characterize all kinds of funding methods, together with danger arbitrage trades. That is little doubt a function throughout the market, as merchants and quant funds seek for larger volatility than they will discover in conventional markets since, harnessed effectively, it might present superior returns. The expansion of liquidity within the crypto derivatives market, each in volumes and in vary of merchandise and maturities, exhibits that hedging methods have gotten extra refined, which allows return-enhancing volatility trades. 

The establishments are already right here

The “nice wall of institutional cash” that some crypto market commentators had been breathlessly awaiting a few years in the past didn’t materialize. However that doesn’t imply “the establishments” aren’t already right here. 

All three panelists acknowledge that crypto markets are nonetheless largely retail, however that institutional traders are taking part in an rising position in liquidity and in shaping the event of market infrastructure. 

Grayscale Investments (a subsidiary of CoinDesk’s guardian DCG), whose purchasers are primarily institutional {and professional} traders, introduced earlier this week their greatest quarter ever, with over $1 billion raised in three months, greater than 4x the quantity for Q3 2019. 

Additionally this week, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) launched a report that exhibits that over $1.1 billion of institutional cash flowed into the trade within the type of enterprise capital investments. And JPMorgan printed an funding notice on bitcoin for its institutional purchasers. 

A rising ecosystem by way of maturity and alternative

General, the occasion highlighted that the crypto asset ecosystem is about a lot greater than bitcoin. Whereas which may be the most important and most liquid cryptocurrency, the innovation, constructing and rising construction round different crypto belongings akin to ETH is certain to draw consideration of a broader vary of traders – not simply those that need to diversify their crypto holdings (ETH has outperformed bitcoin up to now this yr, +194% vs +60%), but in addition those that take the time to grasp the worth proposition of other belongings as particular person alternatives. 

In different phrases, traders will more and more come to comprehend that crypto belongings are rather more than an alternate asset group. They’re a set of compelling concepts that reply to uncommon market dynamics to create a novel alternative to witness not solely the start of a brand new kind of worth change, but in addition the emergence of recent valuation strategies and portfolio methods.

Supply: Coin Metrics

Anybody know what is going on on but?

As if proof had been wanted that crypto markets can transfer quick, the wholesome outperformance proven within the chart beneath was lowered in a matter of minutes when crypto change OKEx introduced an indefinite suspension of withdrawals (which could have been restored by the point you learn this).

With that worth dip, which was comparatively muted in comparison with what it could have been a yr in the past, say, we nonetheless have markets transferring in a gradual band, awaiting additional indicators of vaccine/stimulus optimism, or pandemic/recession/inflation pessimism. 



At our Make investments: Ethereum Financial system occasion this week, our Chief Content material Officer Michael Casey chatted to Heath Tarbert, chairman of the U.S. Commodity Futures Buying and selling Fee (CFTC), concerning the regulator’s view on Ethereum and its asset, ether (ETH). TAKEAWAY: What caught out from the dialog was how a lot thought Chairman Tarbert has put into Ethereum and its potential functions, in addition to the upcoming know-how shift to Ethereum 2.0. Among the many takeaways to control:

  • Staking yields might maybe be thought-about earnings, which might make ETH a safety, though this might be the purview of the U.S. Securities and Change Fee (SEC). The decentralized nature of the Ethereum community is a consider that equation, and will push the classification in the direction of that of commodity.
  • He was surprisingly accepting of the concept decentralized finance will disintermediate the monetary system from conventional gamers.
  • Enforcement actions towards crypto exchanges are more likely to proceed so long as there are exchanges flouting U.S. legal guidelines. Chairman Tarbert sees this as vital for the U.S. to steer in digital belongings. 

A report by PwC exhibits that greenback quantity of crypto M&A offers in H1 2020 exceeded the quantity for all of 2019. Additionally, the common measurement of personal fairness investments grew from $4.8 million in 2019 to $6.4 million within the first half of 2020. TAKEAWAY: Not solely is the report illuminating by way of the variety of offers completed – the place the offers are concentrated can be fascinating. The uptick in offers involving crypto asset exchanges and buying and selling firms reveals a rising curiosity in crypto asset market infrastructure, which alerts that institutional traders anticipate institutional traders to point out much more curiosity within the trade.

Digital asset supervisor Grayscale Investments* reported Q3 figures, which confirmed funding inflows of over $1 billion, vs. $255 million in Q3 2019. TAKEAWAY: Not all of this influx is new institutional cash, as many traders recycle their investments – they promote out there when the lock-up expires (now at six months) at a big premium, after which re-invest the proceeds in new belief share issuance. Nonetheless, the determine is consultant of institutional curiosity, and signifies important development in demand for bitcoin as an funding.  (*Grayscale Investments is owned by CoinDesk’s guardian DCG.)

The Ethereum Belief managed by Grayscale Investments (a subsidiary of CoinDesk’s guardian, DCG) has change into a Securities and Change Fee (SEC) reporting firm, a transfer that will increase the belief’s transparency – and doubtlessly its liquidity. TAKEAWAY: This doubtlessly will increase the belief’s liquidity by decreasing the obligatory holding interval for certified traders from 12 months to 6. It can additionally enhance transparency across the funds flowing by way of the funding automobile, per SEC submitting necessities. 

Funding financial institution JPMorgan issued a analysis notice on bitcoin that confused the “vote of confidence” from Sq.’s current treasury buy of $50 million price of BTC, and the funds firm’s rising income from crypto asset gross sales. TAKEAWAY: The analysts appear to be focusing extra on demographic sentiment and company precedent than elementary valuations, which is itself a notable shift from different funding bank-sponsored stories. Might it’s that conventional finance is lastly getting that fundamentals are usually not the one worth drivers?

Institutional asset supervisor Stone Ridge Holdings Group has bought 10,000 BTC as a “major treasury reserve asset,” which it’s holding with its crypto subsidiary NYDIG. TAKEAWAY: This provides to the record of non-crypto firms utilizing bitcoin as a hedge towards inflation and greenback debasement. Emphasizing the vote of confidence within the ecosystem that this represents is NYDIG’s new $50 million funding spherical, backed by Fintech Collective, Bessemer Enterprise Companions and Ribbit Capital. 

Bitcoin’s hashrate (an indicator of how a lot computing energy is devoted to sustaining the Bitcoin community) rose to a document excessive this week. TAKEAWAY: Bear in mind the Bitcoin halving, simply 5 months in the past, when the miner subsidy of recent bitcoin was minimize by 50% and a few predicted that mining would change into unprofitable for a lot of? This could then theoretically weaken the community’s safety by centralizing mining energy within the arms of some massive swimming pools that might get pleasure from economies of scale. Nicely, reasonably than dwindle, it continues to climb. This exhibits that mining prices are coming down largely resulting from decrease power costs and extra environment friendly machines. It additionally exhibits that the community’s safety relies on extra elements than simply the bitcoin worth (which determines the worth of the miner subsidies) – technological adjustments additionally matter.

On Oct. 1, Diginex turned the primary crypto change operator to record on a U.S. change. CoinDesk Analysis presents a have a look at the corporate’s financials and prospects, within the mild of declared data, uncommon in crypto market infrastructure companies.

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